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FGM refers to all procedures involving
partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to
the female genital organs for cultural or other non-medical reasons.
2.0How many women and girls are affected?
An estimated 100 million to 140 million
girls and women alive today are believed to have been subjected to FGM; they
are predominately in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab States. But rates of FGM
are increasing, a reflection of global population growth.
A key challenge is not only protecting
girls who are currently at risk but also ensuring that those to be born in the
future will be free from the dangers of the practice. This is especially
important considering that FGM-concentrated countries are generally
experiencing high population growth and have large youth populations. In 2010,
for example, more than 45 per cent of the female populations in the Gambia,
Mali, Somalia and Uganda were under age 15.
3.0How does FGM affect the health of
women and girls?
The effects of FGM
depend on a number of factors, including the type
performed, the expertise
of the practitioner, the hygiene conditions under which it is
performed, the amount of resistance and the general health condition of the
girl/woman undergoing the procedure. Complications may occur in all types of
FGM, but are most frequent with infibulation.
Immediate complications include severe
pain, shock, haemorrhage, tetanus or infection, urine retention, ulceration of
the genital region and injury to adjacent tissue, wound infection, urinary
infection, fever, and septicemia. Haemorrhage and infection can be severe
enough to cause death.
Infibulation can cause severe scar
formation, difficulty in urinating, menstrual disorders, recurrent bladder and
urinary tract infection, fistulae and infertility. Almost complete vaginal
obstruction may occur, resulting in accumulation of menstrual flow in the
vagina and uterus.
Infibulation creates a
physical barrier to sexual intercourse and childbirth. An infibulated woman
therefore has to undergo gradual dilation of the vaginal opening before sexual
intercourse can take place. Often, infibulated women are cut
open on the first night of marriage (by the husband
or a circumciser), to enable the husband to be intimate with his wife. At
childbirth, many women also have to be cut again because the vaginal opening is
too small to allow for the passage of a baby.
4.0What are the consequences for
A recent study found that, compared with
women who had been subjected to FGM, those who had undergone FGM faced a
significantly greater risk of requiring a Caesarean section, an episiotomy and
an extended hospital stay, and also of suffering post-partum haemorrhage.
Women who have
undergone infibulation suffer from prolonged and obstructed labour, sometimes
resulting in foetal death and obstetric
fistula. The infants of mothers who have
undergone more extensive forms of FGM are at an increased risk of dying at
Very recent estimates by WHO, UNICEF,
UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division reveal that
most of the high-FGM-prevalence countries also have high maternal mortality
ratios and high numbers of maternal death. Two high-FGM-prevalence countries
are among the four countries with the highest numbers of maternal death
globally. Five of the high-prevalence countries have maternal mortality ratios
of 550 per 100,000 live births and above, while four have maternal mortality
ratios between 400 and 430 per 100,000 live births.
5.0Is there a link between FGM and the
risk of HIV infection?
Because the procedure is coupled with
blood loss, and because one instrument is often used for a number of
operations, FGM increases the risk of HIV transmission. This is particularly
the case in communities where a large group of girls are cut the same day as
part of a socio-cultural rite.
Additionally, due to damage to the female
sexual organs, sexual intercourse can result in the laceration of tissue, which
greatly increases risk of HIV transmission. The same is true for the blood loss
that accompanies childbirth.
6.0What are the psychological effects of
FGM may have lasting effects on women and
girls who undergo FGM. The psychological stress of the procedure may trigger
behavioural disturbances in children, closely linked to loss of trust and
confidence in caregivers. In the longer term, women may suffer feelings of
anxiety and depression. Sexual dysfunction may also contribute to marital
conflicts or divorce.
Type I, also
called clitoridectomy: Partial or total removal of the
clitoris and/or the prepuce. Type II, also called excision: Partial or total removal
of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia
majora. The amount of tissue that is removed varies widely from community to
community. Type III, also called infibulation: Narrowing of the
vaginal orifice with a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and
re-positioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora. This can take place
with or without removal of the clitoris. Type IV: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for
non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping or
Other terms related to FGM include
incision, deinfibulation and reinfibulation:
to making cuts in the clitoris or cutting free the clitoral prepuce, but it
also relates to incisions made in the vaginal wall and to incision of the
perineum and the symphysis. Deinfibulation refers to the practice of
cutting open a woman who has been infibulated to allow intercourse or to
facilitate childbirth. Reinfibulation is the practice of sewing the external labia back
together after deinfibulation.
8.0Which types are most common?
Types I and II are the most common, but
there is variation among countries. Type III – infibulation – is experienced by
about 10 per cent of all affected women and is most likely to occur in Somalia,
northern Sudan and Djibouti.
9.0Why are there different terms to
describe FGM, such as female genital cutting and female circumcision?
The terminology used for this procedure
has gone through various changes.
When the practice
first came to international attention, it was generally referred to as “female
circumcision.” (In Eastern and Northern Africa, this term is often used to
describe FGM type I.) However, the term “female circumcision” has been criticized
for drawing a parallel with male circumcision and creating confusion between
the two distinct practices. Adding to the confusion is the fact that health
experts in many Eastern and Southern African countries encourage male
circumcision to reduce HIV transmission; FGM, on the other hand, can increase
the risk of
It is also sometimes argued that the term
obscures the serious physical and psychological effects of genital cutting on
women. UNFPA does not encourage use of the term “female circumcision” because
the health implications of male and female circumcision are very different.
The term “female genital mutilation” is
used by a wide range of women's health and human rights organizations. It
establishes a clear distinction from male circumcision. Use of the word
“mutilation” also emphasizes the gravity of the act and reinforces that the
practice is a violation of women's and girls’ basic human rights. This
expression gained support in the late 1970s, and since 1994, it has been used
in several United Nations conference documents and has served as a policy and
In the late 1990s the term “female genital
cutting” was introduced, partly in response to dissatisfaction with the term
“female genital mutilation.” There is concern that communities could find the
term “mutilation” demeaning, or that it could imply that parents or
practitioners perform this procedure maliciously. Some fear the term “female
genital mutilation” could alienate practicing communities, or even cause a
backlash, possibly increasing the number of girls subjected to the practice.
Some organizations embrace both terms, referring
to “female genital mutilation/cutting” or FGM.
10.0What terminology does UNFPA use?
UNFPA urges a human rights perspective on
the issue, and the term “female genital mutilation” better describes the
practice from a human rights viewpoint.
Today, a greater number of countries have
outlawed the practice, and an increasing number of communities have committed
to abandon it, indicating that the social and cultural perceptions of the
practice are being challenged by communities themselves, along with national,
regional and international decision-makers. Therefore, it is time to accelerate
the momentum towards full abandonment of the practice by emphasizing the
human-rights aspect of the issue.
The origins of the practice are unclear.
It predates the rise of Christianity and Islam. It is said some Egyptian
mummies display characteristics of FGM. Historians such as Herodotus claim
that, in the fifth century BC, the Phoenicians, the Hittites and the Ethiopians
practiced circumcision. It is also reported that circumcision rites were
practiced in tropical zones of Africa, in the Philippines, by certain tribes in
the Upper Amazon, by women of the Arunta tribe in Australia, and by certain
early Romans and Arabs. As recent as the 1950s, clitoridectomy was practiced in
Western Europe and the United States to treat perceived ailments including
hysteria, epilepsy, mental disorders, masturbation, nymphomania and
melancholia. In other words, the practice of FGM has been followed by many
different peoples and societies across the ages and continents.
12.0At what age is FGM performed?
It varies. In some areas, FGM is carried
out during infancy – as early as a couple of days after birth. In others, it
takes place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first
pregnancy or after the birth of her first child. Recent reports suggest that
the age has been dropping in some areas, with most FGM carried out on girls
between the ages of 0 and 15 years.
13.0Where is FGM practiced?
The practice can be found in communities
around the world.
In Africa, FGM is known to be practiced
among certain communities in 29 countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya,
Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia.
Certain ethnic groups in Asian countries
practice FGM, including in communities in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan
and Sri Lanka.
In the Middle East, the practice occurs in
Oman, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, as well as in Iraq, the State of
Palestine and Israel.
In South America, certain communities are
known to practice FGM in Columbia, Ecuador and Peru.
And in many western countries, including
Australia, Canada, Europe, the United States and the United Kingdom, FGM is
practiced among diaspora populations from areas where the practice is common.
14.0Who performs FGM?
FGM is usually carried out by elderly
people in the community (usually, but not exclusively, women) designated to
perform this task or by traditional birth attendants. Among certain
populations, FGM may be carried out by traditional health practitioners, (male)
barbers, members of secret societies, herbalists or sometimes a female
In some cases, medical
professionals perform FGM. This is referred to as the “medicalization”
of FGM. According to recent UNFPA’s estimates,
around one in five girls subjected to FGM were cut by a trained health-care
provider. In some countries, this can reach as high as three in four girls.
According to estimates from demographic and health surveys and multiple
indicator cluster surveys, countries where the majority of FGM cases are
performed by health workers are Egypt (77%), Sudan (55%), Kenya (41%), Nigeria(
29%) and Guinea (27%).
15.0What instruments are used to perform FGM?
FGM is carried out with special knives,
scissors, scalpels, pieces of glass or razor blades. Anaesthetic and
antiseptics are generally not used unless the procedure is carried out by
medical practitioners. In communities where infibulations is practiced, girls'
legs are often bound together to immobilize them for 10 - 14 days, allowing the
formation of scar tissue.
16.0Why is FGM performed?
In every society in which it is practiced,
female genital mutilation is a manifestation of deeply entrenched gender
inequality. Where it is widely practiced, FGM is supported by both men and
women, usually without question, and anyone departing from the norm may face
condemnation, harassment and ostracism. It may be difficult for families to
abandon the practice without support from the wider community. In fact, it is
often practiced even when it is known to inflict harm upon girls because the
perceived social benefits of the practice are deemed higher than its
disadvantages (WHO 2008).
The reasons given for practicing FGM fall
generally into five categories:
Psychosexual reasons: FGM
is carried out as a way to control women’s sexuality, which is sometimes said
to be insatiable if parts of the genitalia, especially the clitoris, are not
removed. It is thought to ensure virginity before marriage and fidelity
afterward, and to increase male sexual pleasure. Sociological and cultural reasons: FGM is seen as part of a girl’s
initiation into womanhood and as an intrinsic part of a community’s cultural
heritage. Sometimes myths about female genitalia (e.g., that an uncut clitoris
will grow to the size of a penis, or that FGM will enhance fertility or promote
child survival) perpetuate the practice. Hygiene and aesthetic reasons: In some communities, the external
female genitalia are considered dirty and ugly and are removed, ostensibly to
promote hygiene and aesthetic appeal. Religious reasons: Although FGM is not sanctioned by either Islam
or by Christianity, supposed religious doctrine is often used to justify the
practice. Socio-economic factors: In many communities, FGM is a prerequisite
for marriage. Where women are largely dependent on men, economic necessity can
be a major driver of the procedure. FGM sometimes is a prerequisite for the
right to inherit. It may also be a major income source for practitioners.
17.0Is FGM required by certain religions?
No religion promotes or condones FGM.
Still, more than half of girls and women in four out of 14 countries where data
is available saw FGM as a religious requirement. And although FGM is often
perceived as being connected to Islam, perhaps because it is practiced among
many Muslim groups, not all Islamic groups practice FGM, and many non-Islamic
groups do, including some Christians, Ethiopian Jews, and followers of certain
traditional African religions.
FGM is thus a cultural rather than a
religious practice. In fact, many religious leaders have denounced it.
18.0Since FGM is part of a cultural
tradition, can it still be condemned?
Yes. Culture and tradition provide a
framework for human well-being, and cultural arguments cannot be used to
condone violence against people, male or female. Moreover, culture is not
static, but constantly changing and adapting. Nevertheless, activities for the
elimination of FGM should be developed and implemented in a way that is
sensitive to the cultural and social background of the communities that practice
it. Behaviour can change when people understand the hazards of certain
practices and when they realize that it is possible to give up harmful
practices without giving up meaningful aspects of their culture.
19.0Does anyone have the right to interfere
in age-old cultural traditions such as FGM?
Every child has the right to be protected
from harm, in all settings and at all times. The movement to end FGM – often
local in origin – is intended to protect girls from profound, permanent and
completely unnecessary harm. The evidence shows that most people in affected
countries want to stop cutting girls, and that overall support for FGM is
declining even in countries where the practice is almost universal (such as
Egypt and Sudan). Ending FGM will take intensive and sustained collaboration
from all parts of society, including families and communities, religious and
other leaders, the media, governments and the international community.
20.0What is the link between FGM and
Ethnicity is the most significant factor
in FGM prevalence, cutting across socio-economic class and level of education.
Members of certain ethnic groups often adhere to the same social norms,
including whether or not to practice FGM, regardless of where they live. The
FGM prevalence among ethnic Somalis living in Kenya, for example, at 98 per
cent, is the same as in Somalia, and far higher than the Kenyan national
average of 27 per cent.
But there are exceptions. In Senegal, for
example, there are major variations in FGM prevalence among Wolof women
depending on where they live – ranging from 0 per cent in the Diourbel Region
to 35 per cent in the region of Matam. Similarly, FGM prevalence among the
Peulh ranges from 2 per cent among those living in Diourbel to 95 per cent
among those living in Kedougou and Sedhiou.
21.0What do women and girls who have
experienced FGM say about it themselves?
“It is what my grandmother called the
three feminine sorrows: the day of circumcision, the wedding night and the
birth of a baby.” –From “The Three Feminine Sorrows,” a Somali poem
"My two sisters, myself and our
mother went to visit our family back home. I assumed we were going for a
holiday. A bit later they told us that we were going to be infibulated. The day
before our operation was due to take place, another girl was infibulated and
she died because of the operation. We were so scared and didn't want to suffer
the same fate. But our parents told us it was an obligation, so we went. We
fought back; we really thought we were going to die because of the pain. You
have one woman holding your mouth so you won't scream, two holding your chest
and the other two holding your legs. After we were infibulated, we had rope
tied across our legs so it was like we had to learn to walk again. We had to try
to go to the toilet. If you couldn't pass water in the next 10 days something
was wrong. We were lucky, I suppose. We gradually recovered and didn't die like
the other girl. But the memory and the pain never really go away."
–Zainab, who was infibulated at the age of 8 (from WHO)
“I will never subject
my child to FGM if she happens to be a girl, and I will teach her the
consequences of the practice early on.” –Kadiga, Ethiopia
“In my village there is one girl who is
younger than I am who has not been cut because I discussed the issue with her parents.
I told them how much the operation had hurt me, how it had traumatized me and
made me not trust my own parents. The decided they did not want this to happen
to their daughter.” –Meaza, 15 years old
22.0What does the term “medicalization of
According to WHO, the medicalization of
FGM is when FGM is performed by a health-care provider, such as a community
health worker, nurse or doctor. Medicalized FGM can take place in a public or
private clinic, at home or elsewhere. It also includes the procedure of
reinfibulation at any point in time in a woman’s life.
23.0Isn’t it safer for FGM to be performed by
a skilled health worker rather than by somebody without a medical background?
FGM can never be “safe”. Even when the
procedure is performed in a sterile environment and by a health-care
professional, there can be serious health consequences immediately and later in
life. Medicalized FGM gives a false sense of security. There are serious
risks associated with all forms of FGM, including medicalized FGM.
24.0Can FGM be condoned if it is carried out
by medical professionals under hygienic circumstances?
Trained health professionals who perform
female genital mutilation are violating girls’ and women’s right to life, right
to physical integrity and right to health. They are also violating the
fundamental medical ethic to “do no harm.”
When medical personnel perform FGM, they
wrongly legitimize the practice as medically sound or beneficial for girls and
women’s health. And because medical personnel often hold power, authority, and
respect in society, it can also further institutionalize the procedure.
25.0What is UNFPA's approach to FGM?
and UNICEF jointly lead the largest global
programme to accelerate the abandonment of FGM and provide care for its
Networks of religious leaders,
parliamentarians, non-governmental organizations, youth and human rights
activist are supporting the campaign. Civil society organizations have been
engaged and strengthened to implement community-led education and dialogue
sessions on human rights and health. These networks are helping a growing
number of communities declare their abandonment of FGM. A shift has occurred
among religious leaders, many of whom have gone from endorsing the practice to
actively condemning it. There has been a growing number of public declarations
de-linking FGM from religion and supporting of abandonment of the practice.
With UNFPA technical guidance and support,
there has been a surge in activities to strengthen the role of public health
services in preventing FGM and, wherever possible, in treating its victims, and
mitigating its negative effects on women’s health. Health workers have been
trained to treat complications caused by FGM, including the integration of FGM
care into medical education curriculum. Referral systems have been strengthened
between health providers and community actions.
Several countries have passed new national legislation banning FGM and
developed national policy with concrete steps to achieve abandonment of FGM.
Radio networks have aired frank discussions and call-in shows about the harm
caused by FGM. The use of media to galvanize public opinion against the
practice has helped change perceptions and transformed public perceptions of
girls who remain uncut.
26.0In which countries is FGM banned by law?
Africa: Benin (2003); Burkina Faso (1996);
Central African Republic (1996, 2006); Chad (2003); Cote d'Ivoire (1998);
Djibouti (1994, 2009); Egypt (2008); Eritrea (2007); Ethiopia (2004); Ghana
(1994, 2007); Guinea (1965, 2000); Guinea Bissau (2011); Kenya (2001, 2011);
Mauritania (2005); Niger (2003); Nigeria (1999-2002, multiple states, federally
banned in 2015); Senegal (1999); South Africa (2000); Sudan (state of South
Kordofan 2008, state of Gedaref 2009); Tanzania (1998); Togo (1998); Uganda
(2010); Zambia (2005, 2011)
Others: Australia (6 out of 8 states
between 1994-2006); Austria (2002); Belgium (2000); Canada (1997); Colombia
(Resolution No. 001 of 2009 by indigenous authorities); Cyprus (2003); Denmark
(2003); France (Penal Code, 1979); Italy (2005); Luxembourg (on mutilations
only, not specifically on 'genital' mutilation, 2008); New Zealand (1995);
Norway (1995); Portugal (2007); Spain (2003); Sweden (1982, 1998); Switzerland
(2005, new stricter penal norm in 2012); United Kingdom (1985); United States
(federal law 1996, 17 out of 50 states between 1994 and 2006)
Penalties range from a minimum of six
months to a maximum of life in prison. Several countries also include monetary
fines in the penalty.
27.0What does the ICPD Programme of Action
say about FGM?
of Action of the International
Conference on Population and Development recognizes
that violence against women is a widespread phenomenon. It states, "In a
number of countries, harmful practices meant to control women's sexuality have
led to great suffering. Among them is the practice of female genital cutting,
which is a violation of basic rights and a major lifelong risk to women's
health” (para 7.35).
The Programme of Action calls for
"Governments and communities [to] urgently take steps to stop the practice
of female genital cutting and protect women and girls from all such similar
unnecessary and dangerous practices. Steps to eliminate the practice should
include strong community outreach programmes involving village and religious
leaders, education and counselling about its impact on girls' and women's
health, and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation for girls and women who
have suffered cutting. Services should include counselling for women and men to
discourage the practice." (para 7.40)
Chapter 4, para 4.4 states,
"Countries should act to empower women and should take steps to eliminate
inequalities between men and women as soon as possible by… eliminating all
practices that discriminate against women; assisting women to establish and
realize their rights, including those that relate to reproductive and sexual
health.” Para 4.9, states, "Countries should take full measure to
eliminate all forms of exploitation, abuse, harassment and violence against
women, adolescents and children."
28.0Which international and regional
instruments can be referenced for the elimination of FGM?
Most governments in countries where FGM is
practiced have ratified international conventions and declarations that make
provisions for the promotion and protection of the health of women and girls.
Declaration of Human Rights proclaims the
right of all human beings to live in conditions that enable them to enjoy good
health and health care (art. 25). Adopted by the General Assembly of the United
Nations on 10 December 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has five
articles which together form a basis to condemn FGM: article 2 on
discrimination, article 3 concerning the right to security of person, article 5
on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, article 12 on privacy, and article
25 on the right to a minimum standard of living (including adequate health
care) and protection of motherhood.
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women requires
State Parties to: "take all appropriate measure to modify or abolish
customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women" (art.
2f) and "modify social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women,
with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all
other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the
superiority of either of the sexes" (art 5a).
General recommendation 24 (1999) of the
Convention emphasizes that certain cultural or traditional practices, such as
FGM, carry a high risk of death and disability and recommends that State
parties should ensure laws that prohibit FGM.
General recommendation 14 (1990)
recommends State parties take appropriate and effective measures to eradicate
FGM; to collect and disseminate basic data on traditional practices; to support
women's organizations that work for the elimination of harmful practices; to
encourage politicians, professionals, religious and community leaders to
co-operate in influencing attitudes; to introduce appropriate educational and
training programmes; to include appropriate strategies aimed at ending FGM into
national health policies; to invite assistance, information and advice from the
appropriate organization of the United Nations system; and to include in their
reports to the Committee, under articles 10 and 12 of the Convention,
information about measures taken to eliminate FGM.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child protects
against all forms of mental and physical violence and maltreatment (art 19.1);
calls for freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment (art
37a); and requires States to take all effective and appropriate measures to
abolish traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children (art 24.3).
The International Conference on Population
and Development Programme of Action calls for governments to “urgently take
steps to stop the practice of female genital cutting and protect women and
girls from all such similar unnecessary and dangerous practices.”
The African Charter on Human and Peoples'
Rights highlights human rights. Article 4 focuses on integrity of the person,
article 5 on human dignity and protection against degradation, article 16 on
the right to health, and article 18 (3) on the protection of the rights of
women and children.
The Addis Ababa Declaration on Violence
against Women serves as an important step towards
the formulation of an African charter on violence against women, providing the
framework for national laws against FGM. It was adopted at the Council of
Ministers during its sixty-eighth Session in July 1998 by the Organization of
African Unity (OAU). The Declaration was later endorsed by the Assembly of
Heads of State and Governments.
The European Parliament adopted a resolution on
female genital mutilation calling for measures to protect survivors of the
practice and urging member states to recognize the right to asylum for women
and girls at risk of being subject to FGM.
The Protocol to the
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ rights, on the rights of women in Africa,
also known as the Maputo Protocol calls
for the “elimination of harmful practices.”
Assembly/AU/Dec. 383(XVII) produced a decisionstating
that “female genital mutilation (FGM) is a gross violation of fucc ndamental
human rights of women and girls, with serious repercussions on the lives of
millions of people worldwide, especially women and girls in Africa.”
session of the Commission on the Status of Women approved a draft decision,
“Ending female genital mutilation.” (E/CN.6/2012/L.1) The Secretary-General
released a report, “Ending
Female Genital Mutilation” summarizing progress
made on the implementation of 2010 CSW resolution 54/7.
The United Nations
General Assembly passed The
Girl Child Resolution (62/140), stating it was
“deeply concerned… that female genital mutilation is an irreparable,
irreversible harmful practice.” The Secretary-General’s Report on the Girl
Child also included a special emphasis on FGM (A/64/315,
2009 and A/66/257,
United Nations General
Assembly also produced a resolution calling
for “Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital
The Human Rights
Council produced a resolution calling
for “Intensifying global efforts and sharing good practices to effectively
eliminate female genital mutilation.”
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THE General Superintendent of Deeper Life Bible Church, Pastor William Kumuyi, Saturday, maintained that the church will not be handed over to ‘rascals’ who are not portraying the image of Christ in their character.
Kumuyi made the declaration via a satellite broadcast from headquarters of the church in Lagos, while teaching on the topic, ‘Fear Not: The Promise Is Still Good’ during the Faith Clinic session at the ongoing Deeper Life National December Retreat, holding at the Deeper Life Conference Centre (DLCC), which started on Friday, December 21 and ends December 25.
He said the church will not condone any form of rascality and rebellion because the word of God never encourages that and is a strange behaviour capable of taking one to hell fire.
He said: “We are not going to hand the church over to rascals, over to rebellious people that want to scatter everything that is good that the Lord is doing. If you …