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#endGBV OVERVIEW OF SEXUAL AND GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE: DEFINITION, TYPES, CAUSES, EFFECTS AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) is a universal reality existing in all societies regardless of income, class and culture. SGBV occurs in all societies of the world, within the home or in the wider community and it affects both gender, especially women and girls disproportionately.  The world we live in is characterized with violence against both gender.  This is universally present in many forms like wife battering, sexual assault and abuse, female genital mutilation and rape, in war and peacetime, etc.  Sexual and Gender-based violence is the fate of millions of both gender all over the world and these are affecting their productivity both in the homes, communities and places of work. However, all us must be united to put a final stop to this barbaric act.
2.0 DEFINITION
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence(SGBV): is defined any act of violence that results in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women; including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life (Population (Reference Bureau, 2001 pg. 3).
UN General Assembly, in adopting the 1993 declaration on the elimination of violence against women defined gender-based violence as 
Women/girls especially are vulnerable to this violence at all stages of life.  
3.0 COMMON TYPES
female infanticide, (ii) incest, (iii) sex tourism , (iv) child prostitution/ forced prostitution, (v)rape, 
partner violence, (vii) psychological abuse, (viii) sexual harassment , (ix) sexual abuse
forced marriage, (xi) Under-age marriage , (xii) Widowhood rites , (xiii) Male child preference
trafficking in women and girls for sex trade , (xv) Inequality to Access to Education 
4.0 LEVELS OF SEXUAL AND GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
There are three levels of gender-based violence.  
Home or family level, 
Community level 
State level.
Violence within the Home:  domestic violence is the most prevalent form of  sexual and gender-based violence.  Psychological abuse always accompanies physical abuse and majority of women abused by their partners are abused many times. Physical, sexual and psychological violence against girls/women within a couple and  in the family consists of battery, sexual abuse, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women and girls, marital rape, dowry-related violence, incest, non-spousal violence like a son’s violence against his mother and violence related to exploitation and deprivation of freedom. A culture of silence surrounds cases of violence against women in most countries like Nigeria, making it difficult to get a true picture of its extent.  Some of the reasons why it is difficult to get an accurate account is that most of the gender-based violence occur in the private sphere – within (i)families, (ii)inside homes, and(iii) out of sight.
Violence Against  both gender within the General Community: Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community include battery, rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment and intimidation in school or work, forced treatments and abusive medication, the exploitation and commercialization of women’s bodies which is related to increased poverty that is mainly a result of unbridled economic liberalism.  These types of violence occurring within the general community also include contraception imposed on women by constraints or force, forced sterilization or abortions, selective abortion of female foetuses and female infanticide.
Violence Against both Gender Perpetrated by the State: Physical, sexual and psychological violence are too often perpetrated or tolerated by states that priorities custom or tradition over the respect of fundamental freedom.  In some countries, the rise of religious fundamentalism is extremely disturbing as regards women’s right to their economic autonomy and their freedom of choice.  The social exclusion of women is so great that it constitutes a new form of apartheid.  Women are considered second class beings, of lesser value, deprived of their fundamental rights.  Violence against women is also exercised as a weapon of war in situations of armed conflict.  It has many forms including murder, rape, sexual slavery, hostage taking and forced pregnancy 
5.0 MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS (MVG)
( either female or male)
Displaced Persons (either IDPs or EDPs ) – 
mIDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) , nEDPs (Externally Displaced People)
Migrants
Occupants of Communities with Constant Attack Cases
Children ( 0- 18yrs)
Adolescents ( 10-19yrs)
Orphans Trafficked Children
Refugees or those living under foreign occupation.
Victims of Insurgency attacks
Victims of Robbery attacks
Victims of Kidnappers
Persons with Disability
 Additional violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms such as the that have become the focus of internationally organized crimes.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation: In some developing countries of the world, most girls are made to prostitute under the guise of sex tourism.  Sex tourism according to UNICEF Document happens when rich men travel during the holidays from the advanced countries of the world to under-developed/developing countries etc to have sexual dealings with children of between 13 and 15years.  This act is a violation of the legal rights of children and it is a real violence against women.
            
6.0 EFFECTS OF SGBV ( ON THE VICTIMS)
Physical Damage
Death 
Psychological Trauma.  
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Respiratory Diseases 
Suicide
Unplanned Pregnancy 
Loss of life treasure ( for instance, Virginity)
Drug Addiction
7.0 CAUSES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
The causes of gender-based violence are many and varied depending on the types of violence: 
Patriarchal Traditional attitudes
Gender Stereotype (labelling) 
Gender Inequality
Financial Insecurity 
Cultural beliefs
Community Space
8.0 PREVENTION OF SGBV:
Inauguration and sustainability of School-Based SGBV Club ( entire school community)
Intensive Community Awareness Campaign (involving all the gate-keepers and stakeholders)
Inauguration and sustainability of Community-Based Prevention Committee (CBPC- SGBV)
Family Counselling
Stemming child-neglect and abuse, spouse abuse and other family problems.
Effective Cases Documentation and Reporting
Effective Implementation and Monitoring of Legal Laws against SGBV cases
Paper by Ope Yek 080 2129 4777
National Sustainability Officer, Gender Protection Network

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